Diffused backlit illumination with long-distance microscopy shows outer boundary of spray development, while x-ray radiography provides quantitative liquid volume fraction. Operating conditions are the Spray A operating condition unless specified otherwise, using Injector 210675. Please reference SAE paper from Pickett, Manin, Kastengren, and Powell (2014)(full reference).

Long-distance microscopyLong-distance microscopyIntermittencyLiquid Volume FractionLiquid Volume Fraction
Descriptionlong-distance microscopyLDM near the injector over [0 0.3] intensity range, showing a transparent liquid core very near the injector. Supports radiography measurements showing LVF = 1 at 0.1 mm.LDM converted to optical thickness with intermittency boundary at 1.0 opt. thicknessx-ray radiography derived liquid volume fraction, rotating perspective with “transparency”x-ray radiography derived liquid volume fraction, “fly-through” in z direction
Frame period [µs]6.666.666.66
Movies: Play or right-click to download mp4Original LDMOriginal LDMOptical thicknessradiography LVF rotatingZ-direction fly through LVF
References (update when SAE paper complete)Manin et al. (2012)Kastengren et al. (2012)