Spray G meshes and surface files have been prepared to facilitate internal flow and external spray CFD modeling. The tables below list Gen. 1 nominal, specified geometries, along with other “educated” geometries that reflects features from the measured geometry, while also attempting to remove known uncertainties in the measured geometry. The J2715 standard orientation convention has been used by the ECN Spray G community with z = 0, y = 0, x = 0 defined as the tip of the nozzle. In the spirit of the ECN, we encourage use of these meshes/geometries for open scientific exchange on the topic of gasoline spray modeling and ask that you notify Lyle Pickett if you use these meshes. Delphi has provided access to the specified geometries and several of the meshes have been prepared for the ECN and made available by GridPro.

Spray G specified nozzle geometry

Number of holes8
Spray Shapecircular
Bend Angle
L/D ratio1.4
Hole shapestraight
Flow rate15 cc/s @10 MPa
Fuel injectorDelphi solenoid-activated
Nozzle typeValve-covered orifice (VCO)
Nozzle shapeStep hole
Orifice diameter0.165 mm specification (0.170 mm measured)
Orifice length0.16-0.18 mm
Step diameter0.388 mm specification
Orifice drill angle37° relative to nozzle axis
Full outer spray angle80°


Spray G nozzle geometry based upon detailed Argonne x-ray computed tomography measurements (Generation 3)

Solidworks CAD File is recommended for all ECN6 CFD simulationsOriginal Argonne x-ray CT Measurements of Injector #28
File format.SLDPRT (1.5 MB).STL (2.1 GB)-
DescriptionCAD file was generated based upon analysis of Argonne x-ray geometry measurements. Raw geometry measurements were not yet suitable for surface file generation, and also lacked upstream features above the ball/pintle. README can be found here.Please refer to README notes at the referenced links. Because of the complexity, this raw .STL is not recommended for ECN6 simulations.-


Spray G nozzle geometry based upon early measurements (Generation 2)

Measured via x-ray tomographyGeneration 2 Justification
OpenFOAM grid
File format.stl (112 MB).ppt (6.2 MB)OpenFOAM grid package .7z (200 MB)
DescriptionCommercial x-ray tomography performed for injector #28. Shape of certain features is not resolved as the voxel resolution was 5.07 micrometers. Needle/pintle in the closed position.Presentation details features in question and justification for decisions about meshing these features.Mesh with 9 mm cap prepared and donated to the ECN by GridPro


Spray G specified nozzle geometry (Generation 1)

Nozzle and ballNozzle with 3mm capNozzle with 9mm capOpenFOAM grid
File format.stl (1.3 MB).stl (1.3 MB).stl (1.6 MB)OpenFOAM grid package .zip (50 MB)
DescriptionSpecified nozzle and ballNozzle with 3 mm "cap" outside of nozzle, discussed at ECN3, topic 3.5. Needle/pintle is in the "open" position.Nozzle with 9mm "cap" outside of the nozzle. Discussed at ECN3, topic 3.5.Mesh prepared and donated to the ECN by GridPro