Low-Temperature Combustion (LTC): Modulated Kinetics (MK – late injection)

•Low engine-out PM and NOx emissions, high CO and HC emissions
•Less wall wetting than PCI, lower efficiency (combustion phasing), limited to lower loads

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ParameterValue
Fueln-heptane
Intake13% O2 (EGR)
Load4 bar IMEP
Intake T50°C
Intake P2 bar
SOI3° ATDC
Speed1200 rpm
Engine rc10.75
Window100 mm diam
Framing7200 fps
Effective Camera Gain500
Filter500 nm SWP