Low-Temperature Combustion (LTC): Modulated Kinetics (MK – late injection)

•Low engine-out PM and NOx emissions, high CO and HC emissions
•Less wall wetting than PCI, lower efficiency (combustion phasing), limited to lower loads

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Parameter Value
Fuel n-heptane
Intake 13% O2 (EGR)
Load 4 bar IMEP
Intake T 50°C
Intake P 2 bar
Speed 1200 rpm
Engine rc 10.75
Window 100 mm diam
Framing 7200 fps
Effective Camera Gain 500
Filter 500 nm SWP