The ECN working group has identified a few experimental conditions that will be the focus of modelers and experimentalists who wish to voluntarily participate in ECN in the future. The experimental collaboration is made possible by the donation of “identical” injection systems by Delphi. The ECN group has agreed to experiment with the same injector at the same ambient conditions, thereby leveraging the expertise of each participant, and enabling direct comparison between different facilities. We expect that the dataset developed will become a serious focal point for model validation and further advanced diagnostics.

Specifications for the injector and ambient operating conditions for this “Spray G” condition are given below but recommendations for parametric variation beyond Spray G are also available. The Spray G condition corresponds to a non-reacting early injection case for spray-guided gasoline injection. The injector specifications are for modern advanced injection systems with high pressure capability. As a prerequisite to using these injectors, ECN participants are expected to measure the boundary conditions (e.g. temperature, pressure) for the ambient and injector quantities, and state uncertainties associated with the boundary conditions, other data and following the injector care requirements. Please contact Scott Parrish if you believe you can meet these boundary conditions and would like to use one of the shared injectors.

If you are seeking to match only the injector specifications while operating at room temperature for the ambient gases, care should be taken to match the ambient density specification, as this primarily determines the spray mixing and penetration rate.


Spray G operating conditions of ECN
Ambient gas temperature300 °C (573 K)
Ambient gas pressureanear 6.0 bar (600 kPa)
Ambient gas densitya3.5 kg/m3
Ambient gas oxygen (by volume)0% O2 (non-reacting). ( reference gases in pre-burn chambers)
Ambient gas velocityNear-quiescent, less than 1 m/s
Fuel injectorDelphi solenoid-activated
8-hole ( see detailed nozzle geometry)
Fuel injection pressure20 MPa (200 bar), prior to start of the injection
Fuel temperature at nozzleb363 K (90 °C)
Injection mass10 mg*
Electronic injection duration680 µs
Actual injection duration780 µs (see actual measured injection duration)
Measured needle liftArgonne x-ray data

aThis exact combination of ambient pressure and density corresponds to a particular set of gases for a 0%-O2 condition with 89.71% N2, 6.52% CO2, and 3.77% H2O by volume. When different gases are used, the pressure must vary to maintain the same density.

bMay be slightly different than injector body temperature.

* Indicates a nominal value