High-speed schlieren images showing the development of shockwaves as a function of ambient density, with constant ambient temperature of 455 K in nitrogen. Other injector conditions are the Spray A operating condition using Injector 210370. Schlieren imaging was performed at 180,000 frames per second with a resolution of 4.8 pixels/mm. Images are normalized by the intensity at the start of injection and displayed with contrast range from 50 to 130% of this original intensity. Please reference SAE paper from Quan et al. (2014).

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Lens f, f/#85 mm, f/1.885 mm, f/1.885 mm, f/1.885 mm, f/1.8
Frame period [µs]5.565.565.565.56
Exp. time [µs]1111
Movies as a function of ambient density: Play or right-click to download mp40.81 kg/m32.55 kg/m311.7 kg/m322.8 kg/m3

For additional information on shockwave visualization in diesel sprays, please see Kook and Pickett (2010).