High-speed schlieren images showing the development of shockwaves as a function of ambient density, with constant ambient temperature of 455 K in nitrogen. Other injector conditions are the Spray A operating condition using Injector 210370. Schlieren imaging was performed at 180,000 frames per second with a resolution of 4.8 pixels/mm. Images are normalized by the intensity at the start of injection and displayed with contrast range from 50 to 130% of this original intensity. Please reference SAE paper from Quan et al. (2014).

  cxtdn002 cxvdn003 cxndn002 cxldn005
Lens f, f/# 85 mm, f/1.8 85 mm, f/1.8 85 mm, f/1.8 85 mm, f/1.8
Frame period [µs] 5.56 5.56 5.56 5.56
Exp. time [µs] 1 1 1 1
Movies as a function of ambient density: Play or right-click to download mp4 0.81 kg/m3 2.55 kg/m3 11.7 kg/m3 22.8 kg/m3

For additional information on shockwave visualization in diesel sprays, please see Kook and Pickett (2010).